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The Cannabis Review® | Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring molecules found in cannabis that are linked to a number of medical benefits and treatments. The Cannabis Review® | Cannabinoids is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the conditions cannabinoids treat, by what mechanism, and the magnitude of the effect.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of cannabinoids treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

CannabinoidCondition treatedEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
CBC (Cannabichromene)ColitisAntiinflammatory (major)N/AThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
DepressionAntidepressant (major)20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Antiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Antiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Inflammation-induced hypermotilityAntiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Microbiological ContaminationAntimicrobial (major)N/ABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBC (Cannaibichromene)Antimicrobial (major)N/ABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Antimicrobial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
CBD (Cannabidiol)AD-related neuroinflammationAntiinflammatory (major)2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Acute PancreatitisAntiinflammatory (major)0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Acute lung injuryAntiinflammatory (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)N/AThe marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (major)N/AEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Appetite Stimulant (moderate)N/ACannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
Anorexia (with Alzheimer’s Disease)Appetite Stimulant (major)N/AEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
Anxiolytic (major)N/AEffectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Anxiolytic (major)400mgNeural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
Anxiolytic (major)600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/AInvolvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Anxiolytic (moderate)300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
Anxiolytic (moderate)15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
Appetite LossAppetite Stimulant (moderate)N/ACannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
ArthritisAntiarthritic (major)5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (moderate)50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Antibacterial (moderate)50μg/mLAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Antibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Brain InjuryNeuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Neuroprotectant (major)300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Neuroprotectant (major)N/ANeuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
Neuroprotectant (major)N/AThe neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
Breathing DifficultiesAntidyspnoea (moderate)10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
CancerAnticancer (major)N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Anticancer (major)0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Anticancer (major)N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
Anticancer (moderate)N/AAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Antiproliferative (minor)N/APhysiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
Antiproliferative (moderate)1–10µMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Antiproliferative (moderate)1–10µMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Antitumor (major)N/AModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
Antitumor (major)N/AAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
Antitumor (major)N/AAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
Antitumor (moderate)0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
Antitumor (moderate)100mMCannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
Antitumor (moderate)50mMCannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
Antitumor (moderate)N/AChemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
Cardiovascular ComplicationsCardiac Proctection (major)N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central Neuropathic PainAnalgesic (moderate)25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Chronic PainAntiinflammatory (minor)2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
Antidepressant (moderate)15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
Antidepressant (moderate)15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
DiabetesAntidiabetic (moderate)100mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetic ComplicationsAntiinflammatory (major)N/ACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
Diabetic Complications (Diabetic cardiomyopathy)Antiinflammatory (major)N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Antiinflammatory (major)N/ACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
DystoniaAntidystonic (moderate)100 to 600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic (moderate)200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Antiepileptic (moderate)1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
Antiepileptic (moderate)2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
Antiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Antiepileptic (moderate)200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
Antiepileptic (moderate)5-50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
Antiepileptic (moderate)N/ACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
Epilepsy (Seizure state)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Anticonvulsant (minor)N/ACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
Facial Emotion RecognitionImproves recognition of emotional facial (moderate)16mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
Glioblastoma multiformeAnticancer (major)N/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotective (moderate)10mg/kgControlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
HyperlocomotionAntipsychotic (moderate)15–60mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Immune System related diseasesAuto-immunity (moderate)2.5 or 5mg/kgCannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
InsomniaImprove Sleep (moderate)25mg,
6mg to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Multiple sclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic (moderate)2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Antinociceptive (moderate)N/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (minor)12mgThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)N/AClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Antispasticity (moderate)4 spraysClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Neuroprotection (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Antiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
Antiemetic (moderate)5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
Neuroinflammatory diseasesAntiinflammatory (minor)N/AAnti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
OsteoporosisBone Stimulant (moderate)N/ARegulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
PainAnalgesic (moderate)N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic (moderate)N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Analgesic (moderate)N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Analgesic (moderate)N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Parkinson’s DiseaseAntidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)300mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Neuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Parkinson’s diseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Neuroprotectant (moderate)75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesAntiinflammatory (major)N/APathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Peripheral pain responseAnalgesic (moderate)N/A(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Posttraumatic stress disorderAnxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/ACannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
Psychotic ExperiencesAntipsychotic (minor)N/ACannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Retinal InflammatoryAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic DiseasesAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/ACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
SchizophreniaAntipsychotic (moderate)0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
SepsisAntiinflammatory (minor)N/AEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
SpasticityAntispasticity (minor)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Spinal InjuryNeuroprotectant (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
UveitisAntiinflammatory (major)5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)CancerAnticancer (moderate)N/ACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
InflammationAntiinflammatory (minor)2μMCannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
NauseaAntiemetic (minor)0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
Antiemetic (moderate)5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
Antiemetic (moderate)0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
Antiemetic (moderate)0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
Antiemetic (moderate)0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
Anticonvulsant (moderate)50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
Anticonvulsant (moderate)N/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
Anticonvulsant (moderate)N/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBG (Cannabigerol)CancerAntitumor (major)N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
Cancer (Melanoma)Antitumor (moderate)31.31μ/mLSynthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
Cancer (Oral epitheloid)Antitumor (major)N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)N/AA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
Human immune diseasesImmunosuppressive (moderate)N/AA Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (moderate)N/AVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa.
Irritable bowel syndromeAntiinflammatory (major)N/ABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
MRSAAntibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
NeuroinflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Oxidative-stress related disordersAntioxidant (moderate)N/ACannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
CBN (Cannabinol)ALSNeuroprotectant (moderate)5mg/kgCannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
Low feeding behaviourAppetite Stimulant (minor)N/ACannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
MRSAAntibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
PainAnalgesic (major)N/AComparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats
Tonic-clonic seizureAnticonvulsant (moderate)N/AAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
TumorAntitumor (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ADHDImproves behaviour (moderate)71ng/mLCannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/AOral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ALSNeuroprotectant (moderate)N/AThe CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Acute psychosocial stressAnxiolytic (moderate)7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (major)N/AThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Neuroprotectant (minor)4.5mgTetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ASafety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
Alzheimer’s DiseaseNeuroprotectant (major)N/AThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
AnalgesicAnalgesic (minor)10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
Antiglaucoma (moderate)N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnorexiaAppetite Stimulant (moderate)2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
Appetite Stimulant (moderate)2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
Appetite Stimulant (moderate)N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
AnxietyAnxiolytic (minor)7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
AsthmaBronchodilating activity (moderate)15mgAcute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
Bronchodilating activity (moderate)200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
Bronchodilating activity (moderate)200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
Bronchodilating activity (moderate)500mgEffects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
Breathing DifficultiesBronchodilating activity (moderate)20mgAcute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Chemosensory alterationsAppetite Stimulant (major)2.5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial
Crohn’s DiseaseAntiinflammatory (minor)115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
DementiaNeuroprotective (moderate)3mgEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
EdemaAntiinflammatory (minor)N/AAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
EmeticAntiemetic (major)N/AAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
Antiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Antiemetic (major)5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Antiemetic (minor)N/ATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
Antiemetic (moderate)15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
Antiemetic (moderate)N/ARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Antiemetic (moderate)5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
Antiemetic (moderate)5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
Antiemetic (moderate)18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
Antiemetic (moderate)10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
Antiemetic (moderate)15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegalyAntileukemic (major)200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (minor)N/ATopical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Antiglaucoma (minor)12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
Antiglaucoma (minor)0.4% of mixtureEfficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Glioblastoma multiformeAnticancer (major)N/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Antitumor (moderate)N/AA pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
HIV-infectedAppetite Stimulant (moderate)N/AA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
Intestinal inflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Multiple sclerosisAnalgesic (moderate)10mgA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Antinociceptive (moderate)N/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ACannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
Antispasticity (moderate)N/AThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ASafety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ACannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
Antispasticity (moderate)10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
Antispasticity (moderate)7.5mgDelta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)4 spraysClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
Antispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Antispasticity (moderate)33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
Antispasticity (moderate)2-10 inhalationsClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)1.54% of mixtureShort-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
Antitremor (moderate)N/ATetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
NauseaAntiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Antiemetic (moderate)8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
Antiemetic (moderate)N/AAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Neurological disordersNeuroprotectant (moderate)N/ACannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic PainAnalgesic (major)25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
Oxidative StressAntioxidant (minor)N/AUnderstanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/AReactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
PainAnalgesic (minor)0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
Analgesic (minor)N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic (minor)2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
Analgesic (minor)6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
Analgesic (minor)20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
Analgesic (minor)N/AIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
Analgesic (minor)5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
Analgesic (minor)N/AOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
Analgesic (moderate)N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
Analgesic (moderate)N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Analgesic (moderate)N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
Analgesic (moderate)8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
Analgesic (moderate)12.3ng/mL/mgThe analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
Analgesic (moderate)10mg,
20mg
The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
Analgesic (moderate)5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
Analgesic (moderate)20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
Analgesic (moderate)5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
Antinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
Antinociceptive (moderate)1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
Antinociceptive (moderate)4mg/kgLow dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
Posttraumatic stress disorderAntidepressant (moderate)5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
SchizophreniaAntipsychotic (moderate)2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
Sleep ApneaImproves sleep (moderate)20mgAround-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
SpasticityAntispacity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antispasticity (minor)N/ASmoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Antispasticity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antispasticity (moderate)15–20mgThe treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
Tourette’s SyndromeAntihyperactivity (moderate)N/AOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
Antihyperactivity (moderate)10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Antihyperactivity (moderate)10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antispacity (moderate)10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxationsAntigastroesophageal reflux (moderate)20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Traumatic Brain InjuryNeuroprotective (moderate)N/AEffect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
VomitingAntiemetic (moderate)N/ATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)NeurodegenerationNeuroprotective (moderate)10μMEffects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)AcneAnti-acne (major)N/ADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
DiabetesAntidiabetic (moderate)5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
EpelipsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Ischaemia-reperfusionAntiinflammation (moderate)N/AΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
NauseaAntinausea (minor)10mg/kgEvaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)N/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.
Stimulates neural effects (moderate)10mgNeural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
THCv (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)3mg/kgSynthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
Antiobesity (moderate)N/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
Antiobesity (moderate)N/AThe cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

CannabinoidCondition treatedEffectStudy
CBC (Cannabichromene)DepressionAntidepressant (minor)Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
EpilepsyAntiepileptic (moderate)Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
CBD (Cannabidiol)Bone diseasesStimulate Bone growth (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CancerAnticancer (moderate)Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
Chronic DiseasesCerebroprotective (minor)Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
HypertensionAntihypertension (moderate)Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Intestinal prokineticAntiprokinetic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Neurodegenerative DisordersNeuroprotective (major)Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
PsoriasisAntipsoriatic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
SchizophreniaAntipsychosis (moderate)A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
SpasticityAntispasticity (minor)Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
CBG (Cannabigerol)Breast cancerAntiproliferative (moderate)The system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
CBN (Cannabinol)ALSNeuroprotective (moderate)Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Bone diseasesStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
GlaucomaAntiglaucoma (moderate)Cannabinoids and glaucoma
OsteoporosisStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)AnorexiaStimulate appetite (moderate)The cancer cachexia syndrome
BipolarNeuroprotective (moderate)Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone diseasesStimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Crohn’s diseaseAntiinflammatory (major)Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
MigraineNeuroprotective (minor)Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
OsteoporosisStimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Spasm and painAntispasmodic (moderate)Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Bone diseasesBone Stimulant (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
PainAnalgesic (moderate)Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the system? A systematic review

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