The Cannabis Review® | Conditions

Cannabis has been shown to have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Conditions is a collection of scientific studies that identify the molecules, found in cannabis, that treat specific conditions, by what effect, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of condition treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Condition treatedCannabinoid/ TerpeneEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
AD-related NeuroinflammationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
ADHDTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Improves behaviour (moderate)71ng/mLCannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/AOral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ALSCBN (Cannabinol)5mg/kgCannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/AThe CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
AcneTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Anti-acne (major)N/ADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Acute Lung InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (major)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Acute PancreatitisCBD (Cannabidiol)0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Acute Psychosocial StressTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (moderate)7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
Adult Aedes Aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)EucalyptolLarvicidal (moderate)N/A1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Aedes albopictusGeraniolInsect repellent (major)0.250μg/cm3Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Airway hypersecretionEucalyptolAntiinflammatory (major)200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
AlgesicLimoneneAnalgesic (moderate)N/AInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Alzheimer’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (major)N/AThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Neuroprotectant (minor)4.5mgTetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ASafety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
Alzheimer’s DiseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)N/AThe marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (major)N/AThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
AnalgesicAnalgesic (minor)10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
AnorexiaCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (major)N/AEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
N/AEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Appetite Stimulant (moderate)N/ACannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
AnxietyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (major)400mgNeural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
N/AEffectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
N/AInvolvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
D-LimoneneNeuroprotective (moderate)15.21% of mixtureNeuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
LimoneneAnxiolytic (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
Anxiolytic (moderate)3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
LinaloolAntidepressant (moderate)N/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Anxiolytic (major)N/AEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
N/AEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Anxiolytic (moderate)0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anxiolytic (minor)7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
N/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
α-Pinene / β-PineneN/AExpression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Appetite LossCBD (Cannabidiol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)N/ACannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
ArthritisAntiarthritic (major)5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
CamphorAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
AsthmaGeraniolAntiasthma (major)100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)15mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
20mgEffects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
15mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
500mgAcute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
AtherosclerosisGeraniolAntiinflammatory (moderate)100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood statesLinaloolSedative (moderate)N/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Bacterial ContaminationCBD (Cannabidiol)Antibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
50μg/mLAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CaryophylleneAntibacterial (minor)10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Antibacterial (moderate)19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
27% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)N/AScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geranyl AcetateAntibacterial (major)7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Humulene14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
MyrceneN/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Ocimene23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Antibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
P-Cymene0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
α-Pinene / β-PineneAntibacterial (major)α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Botrytis CinereaTerpinoleneAntifungal (moderate)N/AAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain InjuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (major)N/AThe neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
N/ANeuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
Brain tumourTerpinoleneAnticancer (moderate)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast CancerLinaloolN/ALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
TerpinoleneAnticancer (major)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
α-TerpineolBreast cancer (moderate)5.4μg/mLThe effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Breathing DifficultiesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidyspnoea (moderate)10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bronchodilating activity (moderate)20mgAcute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Buccal bacteriaGeraniolChemopreventive (major)250mg/kgChemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
α-trans-BergamoteneAntibacterial (moderate)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
CancerBorneolAnticancer (major)N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
N/ANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
CBD (Cannabidiol)N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Anticancer (moderate)N/AAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Antiproliferative (minor)N/APhysiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
Antiproliferative (moderate)1–10μMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
1–10μMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Antitumor (major)N/AAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
N/AModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
N/AModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
Antitumor (moderate)50mMCannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
100mMCannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
N/AChemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Anticancer (moderate)N/ACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CBG (Cannabigerol)Antitumor (major)N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
Antitumor (moderate)31.31μ/mLSynthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CaryophylleneAnticancer (major)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Anticancer (moderate)7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
HumuleneAnticancer (major)32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Antitumor (moderate)N/AAntitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
LinaloolN/ALinalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
TerpineolAnticancer (moderate)3 or 6mMα Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Antiproliferative (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
α-Pinene / β-PineneAnticancer (major)α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Cardiovascular ComplicationsCBD (Cannabidiol)Cardiac Proctection (major)N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central neuropathic painAnalgesic (moderate)25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Cerebral Ischemic InjuryCaryophylleneNeuroprotective (major)10mg/kgProtective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymesMyrceneAntimutagenic (minor)1,
000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Cervical cancerCampheneAnticancer (moderate)N/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
α-TerpineolCytotoxicity (moderate)12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Chronic PainCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (minor)2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Chronic inflammatory disordersMentholAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Chronic myelogenus leukemiaα-TerpineolAntiproliferative (major)12.66% of mixturePhytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Cold and mechanical hyperalgesiaPhellandreneAntihyperalgesia (moderate)11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
ColitisCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)N/AThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Colon cancerLinaloolAnticancer (moderate)100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Crohn’s DiseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (minor)115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
DementiaNeuroprotective (moderate)3mgEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
DepressionCBC (Cannabichromene)Antidepressant (major)20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
CBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
Camphor4.91% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
CaryophylleneAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
LinaloolAntidepressant (moderate)50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
α-Pinene / β-PineneN/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Dermatitis, Skin lesionD-LimoneneSkin Repair (major)N/ASkin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformansSabineneAntifungal (moderate)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
DiabetesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidiabetic (moderate)100mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
D-LimoneneN/AProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetic ComplicationsCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Complications (Diabetic cardiomyopathy)N/ACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
DystoniaAntidystonic (moderate)200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)100 to 600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
EdemaCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
HumuleneAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isopulegol22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Limonene25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
LinaloolAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Phytol7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (minor)N/AAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
TerpineolAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Δ-3-CareneN/APharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
α-BisabololAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
α-Terpineol6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Edema (carrageenin-induced)CBC (Cannabichromene)120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
EucalyptolAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/ATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
N/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
IsopulegolAntiinflammatory (major)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Δ-3-CareneN/AComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
N/APharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Emetic activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (major)N/AAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
Antiemetic (minor)N/ATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
N/AIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
N/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
N/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
N/ARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
N/AComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
N/AAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
N/AA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
N/AThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
N/ADelta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
EpilepsyCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Antiepileptic (moderate)2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
N/ACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
5 – 50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)N/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
LinaloolN/AAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Epilepsy (Seizure state)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anticonvulsant (major)1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Anticonvulsant (minor)N/ACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)Anticonvulsant (moderate)N/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
Facial Emotion RecognitionCBD (Cannabidiol)Improves recognition of emotional facial (moderate)16mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Food-related microorganismsD-LimoneneAntimicrobial (major)N/AEffects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegalyTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antileukemic (major)200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Fungal ContaminationBorneolAntifungal (major)36.5% of mixtureBorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
D-LimoneneN/ARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Antifungal (minor)56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
FarneseneAntifungal (major)14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
MyrceneAntifungal (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
NerolidolAntifungal (major)N/AEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
OcimeneAntifungal (moderate)25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
P-CymeneN/AAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Phellandrene1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
SabineneAntifungal (minor)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antifungal (moderate)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
Gastric ulcerIsopulegolGastroprotective (moderate)N/AGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
LimoneneGastroprotective (major)N/AGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
α-BisabololGastroprotective (minor)N/A(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
α-Pinene / β-PineneGastroprotective (moderate)N/AGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
GlaucomaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiglaucoma (minor)20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
CBG (Cannabigerol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)N/AA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiglaucoma (minor)12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
0.4% of mixtureTopical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
Antiglaucoma (moderate)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
Glioblastoma multiformeCBD (Cannabidiol)Anticancer (major)N/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Antitumor (moderate)N/AA pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
Glutamate induced painLinaloolAntinociceptive (minor)N/AEvidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
HIV-infectedTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (moderate)N/AA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
HaCaT keratinocytesSabineneCytotoxicity (minor)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Halatosisα-BisabololAntimicrobial (minor)N/AThe antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Hepatocellular carcinomaTerpineolAnticancer (moderate)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
High heart rate and upset moodLinaloolSedative (moderate)N/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
House fly (Musca domestica L.)PulegoneInsecticide (minor)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
67.5% of mixtureMolecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
Human chronic ulcersD-LimoneneHealing property (moderate)245mg/kgHealing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Human immune diseasesCBG (Cannabigerol)Immunosuppressive (moderate)N/AA Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s DiseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotective (moderate)10mg/kgControlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
CBG (Cannabigerol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
N/AVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
N/AVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
HyperalgesiaLimoneneAntihyperalgesic (moderate)10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
MyrceneAnalgesic (minor)N/AMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
P-CymeneAntihyperalgesic (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Antiinflammatory (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
HyperlipidemicCampheneAntihyperlipidemic (moderate)30μg/grCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
HyperlocomotionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (moderate)15–60mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
HypernociceptionPhellandreneAntinociceptive (major)50mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
ImmobilityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidepressant (moderate)10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Limonene10mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Phellandrene10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Immune System related diseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Auto-immunity (moderate)2.5 or 5mg/kgCannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
InflammationBorneolAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
CBC (Cannabichromene)10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a (major) non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
CBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)N/AEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
CampheneAntinociceptive (major)N/AAntinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Caryophyllene oxideAntiinflammatory (major)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
LinaloolN/AAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
MyrceneAntiinflammatory (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
P-Cymene25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
SabineneAntiinflammatory (major)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
α-BisabololAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-Pinene / β-PineneN/Aα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Inflammation-induced hypermotilityCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiinflammatory (minor)2μMEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/ACannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
InsomniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Improve Sleep (moderate)25mg,
6 to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Intestinal inflammationTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Irritable bowel syndromeCBG (Cannabigerol)Antiinflammatory (major)N/ABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Ischaemia-reperfusion injuryTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
LPS-stimulated human macrophagesTerpineol-4-olN/ATerpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Leishmania speciesNerolidolAntileishmanial (moderate)100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
N/AAntileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Leukemiaα-TerpineolAntiproliferative (minor)N/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryCymeneAntiinflammatory (major)N/AProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophagesSabineneAntiinflammatory (moderate)29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Liver cancerTerpineolAnticancer (moderate)320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Low feeding behaviourCBN (Cannabinol)Appetite Stimulant (minor)N/ACannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
Lung adenocarcinomaβ-MyrceneAntitumor (major)9.29% of mixtureComposition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Lung cancerLinaloolAnticancer (minor)N/AA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
MRSACBG (Cannabigerol)Antibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN (Cannabinol)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Macrophages and keratinocytesSabineneCytotoxicity (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
MalariaNerolidolAntimalarial (moderate)1000mg/kgAntimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
α-Terpineol22.6% of mixtureComposition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Malassezia furfurTerpinoleneAntifungal (major)N/AChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Mechanical hyperalgesiaLimoneneAntihyperalgesia (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Metabolic bone disordersΔ-3-CareneBone stimulant (moderate)N/ALow Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Microbiological ContaminantsMyrceneAntimicrobial (minor)N/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
N/AChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia
Antimicrobial (moderate)N/AAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
3.21% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
α-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (major)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Antimicrobial (moderate)50μg/mLBiological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers
α-pinene (9.35%),
β-pinene (3.90%)
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Microbiological ContaminationBorneol4.91% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
CBC (Cannabichromene)Antimicrobial (major)N/ABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
N/ABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
Antimicrobial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
CampheneN/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Caryophyllene7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide60 to 80μg/mlCompositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
CedrolAntimicrobial (minor)6.3% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
D-LimoneneAntimicrobial (moderate)94% of mixtureOrange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
FarneseneAntimicrobial (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
GuaiolAntimicrobial (minor)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
5% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
IsoborneolAntimicrobial (moderate)14.66% of mixtureGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
MyrceneN/AAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
P-CymeneAntimicrobial (major)N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Antimicrobial (minor)5.33% of mixtureAntimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals
Antimicrobial (moderate)32.6mL/LChemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis
TerpineolAntimicrobial (major)N/AAntimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
TerpinoleneAntimicrobial (moderate)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
α-Pinene / β-PineneAntimicrobial (major)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
α-TerpineolAntimicrobial (minor)13.0% of mixtureAntimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
β-CedreneAntimicrobial (moderate)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
MosquitoEucalyptolLarvicidal (minor)100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
GeraniolInsect repellant (major)N/AEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
N/AEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Insect repellant (moderate)5% of mixtureIndoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Antinociceptive (moderate)N/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (minor)12mgThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Antispasticity (moderate)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
N/AClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
4spraysClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (moderate)N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Antiemetic (moderate)15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Antinociceptive (moderate)N/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity (moderate)10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
N/ACannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
1.54% of mixtureShort-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
N/ASafety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
N/ACannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
>7.5mgDelta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
N/AThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
4spraysClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
2-10 inhalationsClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Antitremor (moderate)N/ATetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Urinary Protection (moderate)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Myocardial contractility related disordersEucalyptolContractile Activity in cardiac muscle (moderate)0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
NauseaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiemetic (moderate)200mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Antiemetic (minor)0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
Antiemetic (moderate)0.5 mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
0.5μg/kg,
1μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/AAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antinausea (minor)10mg/kgEvaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
NeurodegenerationTHCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)Neuroprotective (moderate)10μMEffects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
NeuroinflammationCBG (Cannabigerol)Antinflammatory (moderate)N/AA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological disordersTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/ACannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic PainLinaloolAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/A(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (major)25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
NociceptionIsopulegolAnotinociceptive (moderate)N/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
LinaloolAntinociceptive (moderate)N/AIntraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
ObesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Antiobesity (moderate)3mg/kgSynthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
N/AThe cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
N/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
N/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients
Stimulates neural effects (moderate)10mgNeural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
α-CedreneAntiobesity (moderate)10-20mg/kg,
50-100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
Oral mucositisBorneolAntiinflammatory (moderate)1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosisAntifibrosis (moderate)18.75 to 300μg/mlInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Osteoarthritisβ-MyrceneAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
OsteoporosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Bone stimulant (moderate)N/ARegulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Oxidative-stress related disordersCBG (Cannabigerol)Antioxidant (moderate)N/ACannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study.
Caryophyllene10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CymeneN/AEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
FarneseneAntioxidant (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
GuaiolAntioxidant (moderate)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
MyrceneAntioxidant (major)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
N/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Antioxidant (minor)N/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Antioxidant (moderate)N/AAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
N/AThe Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
NerolidolAntioxidant (major)N/AAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
N/AAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Antioxidant (moderate)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
P-CymeneN/AAntioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Sabinene29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antioxidant (minor)N/AUnderstanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Neuroprotectant (moderate)N/AReactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
TerpineolAntioxidant (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Terpinolene10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
α-TerpineolAntioxidant (major)N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Antioxidant (minor)N/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-trans-BergamoteneAntioxidant (major)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
β-Cedrene6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
PainBorneolAnalgesic (major)N/AA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
CBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
CamphorN/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
N/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
Caryophyllene oxideAnesthetic (moderate)56.9% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
EucalyptolAnalgesic (moderate)N/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
LinaloolN/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Analgesic (minor)N/AIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
N/AOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
Analgesic (moderate)5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
12.3ng/mL/mgThe Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
Antinociceptive (moderate)4mg/kgLow dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
Parkinson’s diseaseCBD (Cannabidiol)Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate)100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Neuroprotectant (major)75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Neuroprotectant (moderate)300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
CaryophylleneAntiinflammatory (minor)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Antioxidant (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)N/APathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Pediculus humanus humanusGeraniolInsect repellent (moderate)N/ARepellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Periodontal diseaseβ-CaryophylleneAntibacterial (major)N/AUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteriaTerpineolAntimicrobial (minor)N/AAntimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Peripheral pain responseCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)N/A(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Phytopathogenic bacteriaCampheneAntibacterial (major)5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (major)N/AChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
CymeneAntifungal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
P-CymeneAntifungal (major)N/AAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
β-CaryophylleneAntifungal (moderate)16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Pleurisyα-trans-BergamoteneAntiinflammatory (moderate)7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)CBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiolytic (moderate)32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
N/ACannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antidepressant (moderate)5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Anxiolytic (moderate)N/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6PhellandreneAntiinflammatory (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Prostate cancerGeraniolAnticancer (major)N/AGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
LinaloolAnticancer (moderate)N/AAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Psychotic ExperiencesCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (minor)N/ACannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren)CamphorInsecticide (major)36.61% of mixtureFumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
ReflexesLinaloolAnesthetic (moderate)0.01 – 10μg/mlLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Retinal InflammatoryCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic DiseasesN/ACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Rheumatoid arthritisβ-CaryophylleneAntiinflammatory (major)100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
SchizophreniaCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsychotic (moderate)0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
SeizuresCaryophylleneAnticonvulsant (minor)100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Neuroprotective (major)N/ANeuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
IsopulegolAnticonvulsant (major)N/AEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
SepsisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (minor)N/AEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adultsCymeneInsecticidal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Skin tumorigenesisD-LimoneneChemopreventive (major)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
d-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
Sleep ApneaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Improves sleep (moderate)20mgAround-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Sleep deprivationLimoneneRelaxant (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Myrcene100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
SpasticityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (minor)N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/ASmoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Antispasticity (moderate)10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
15–20mgThe treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
Spinal injuryCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotectant (moderate)20mg/kgCannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
StressGuaiolAnesthetic (minor)N/AAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Superficial scaldFarneseneAntioxidant (minor)N/ASuperficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammationD-LimoneneAntiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Tension of the blood vessel wallsBorneolVasorelaxant (moderate)N/AInvestigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
ThrombosisAnthrombotic (moderate)N/AThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Tonic-clonic seizureCBN (Cannabinol)Anticonvulsant (moderate)N/AAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
TouretteTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antihyperactivity (moderate)N/ADelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Tourette’s Syndrome10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
N/AOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxationsAntigastroesophageal reflux (moderate)20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Traumatic Brain InjuryNeuroprotective (moderate)N/AEffect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
Tribolium castaneumPulegoneInsecticidal (moderate)0.8-26.6% of mixtureChemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
TumorCBN (Cannabinol)Antitumor (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
β-CaryophylleneAntitumor (major)N/Aβ-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
UveitisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiinflammatory (major)5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
VomitingTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)N/ATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
WritheLimoneneAntinociceptive (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
LinaloolAntinociception (moderate)25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
P-CymeneAntinociceptive (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
TerpineolAnalgesic (moderate)N/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Condition treatedCannabinoid/ TerpeneEffectStudy
ALSCBN (Cannabinol)Neuroprotective (moderate)Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
AnorexiaTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Stimulate appetite (moderate)The cancer cachexia syndrome
BipolarNeuroprotective (moderate)Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone DiseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBN (Cannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Bone Stimulant (moderate)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
CancerCaryophylleneAnticancer (moderate)β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideβ-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
LimoneneAnticancer (major)Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiproliferative (moderate)Cannabinoids and Cancer
β-MyrceneAntitumor (moderate)Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Chronic DiseasesCBD (Cannabidiol)Cerebroprotective (minor)Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
CoughEucalyptolCough suppresant (minor)Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var
Crohn’s diseaseTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiinflammatory (major)Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
DepressionCBC (Cannabichromene)Antidepressant (minor)Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
EmeticTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antiemetic (moderate)Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials
EpilepsyCBC (Cannabichromene)Antiepileptic (moderate)Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
GlaucomaCBN (Cannabinol)Antiglaucoma (moderate)Cannabinoids and glaucoma
HypertensionCBD (Cannabidiol)Antihypertension (moderate)Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
InflammationMyrceneAntiinflammatory (major)Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
α-BisabololAntiinflammatory (moderate)A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
InsomniaBorneolAntiinsomnia (moderate)Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Intestinal prokineticCBD (Cannabidiol)Antiprokinetic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
MigraineTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuroprotective (minor)Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Multiple sclerosisCBD (Cannabidiol)Analgesic (moderate)Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
Neurodegenerative DisordersCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroprotective (major)Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
Osteoporosis DisordersCBN (Cannabinol)Stimulate Bone Growth (minor)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Oxidative stressCaryophyllene oxideNeuroprotective (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
PainCaryophylleneAnalgesic (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate)Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the endocannabinoid system? A systematic review
PsoriasisCBD (Cannabidiol)Antipsoriatic (moderate)Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
SchizophreniaAntipsychosis (moderate)A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Spasmβ-MyrceneAntispasm (minor)Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
Spasm and painTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Antispasmodic (moderate)Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
SpasticityCBD (Cannabidiol)Antispasticity (minor)Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
TumorGeraniolAntitumor (major)The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)

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