The Cannabis Review® | Effects

Cannabis has been shown to have many beneficial effects on users. The Cannabis Review® | Effects is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the molecules, found in cannabis, that have specific effects on users, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following scientific studies establish the potential effectiveness for treating specific conditions using molecules found in cannabis. The study names link to the full studies; click to view.

EffectMagnitudeCannabinoid/ TerpeneCondition treatedAmount usedStudyGrade
AnalgesicmajorBorneolPainN/AA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Neuropathic Pain25mgSmoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
minorMyrceneHyperalgesiaN/AMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple sclerosis10mgDoes the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial.
Pain5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Central neuropathic pain25mg/mLOromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Multiple sclerosis2.5mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
2-10 inhalationsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
Pain2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
Peripheral pain responseN/A(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
CamphorPain200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
N/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism.
N/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
Caryophyllene oxide12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
EucalyptolN/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
LimoneneAlgesicN/AInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
LinaloolPainN/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice.
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple sclerosis2.7mgRandomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis
PainN/AIncreased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
6.7% of mixture,
2.9% of mixture
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis
2.5–15mgDelta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
N/AOpen-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain
5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial
N/AMulticenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain
5mgLack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain
20mgThe analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions
5mgSynergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
N/AA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment
12.3ng/mL/mgThe Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study
0.022mg/kg,
0.044mg/kg
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response
20mgLack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers
10mg,
20mg
The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
2.5mgInitial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies
8mgSingle dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
N/AAn open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics
TerpineolWritheN/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
AnestheticminorGuaiolStressN/AAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
moderateCaryophyllene oxidePain56.9% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
LinaloolReflexes0.01 – 10 μg/mlLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
AnthromboticBorneolThrombosisN/AThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Anti-acnemajorTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)AcneN/ADifferential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
AntiarthriticCBD (Cannabidiol)Arthritis5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
AntiasthmaGeraniolAsthma100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
AntibacterialBacterial contaminationOcimene23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
CamphenePhytopathogenic Bacteria5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Geranyl AcetateBacterial contamination7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Humulene14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
MyrceneN/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Ocimene0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
α-Pinene / β-Pineneα-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
β-CaryophyllenePeriodontal diseaseN/AUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
minorCaryophylleneBacterial contamination10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
50μg/mlAntibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
CBG (Cannabigerol)MRSAN/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN (Cannabinol)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CaryophylleneBacterial contamination27% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)N/AScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
OcimeneN/AAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
P-Cymene0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
α-trans-BergamoteneBuccal bacteria29.90% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
AnticancermajorBorneolCancerN/ANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
CBD (Cannabidiol)N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
N/AThe Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model
0.5 to 7.0μl/mlIn Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Glioblastoma multiformeN/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
CaryophylleneCancer10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
GeraniolProstate cancerN/AGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
HumuleneCancer32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glioblastoma multiformeN/AA Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
TerpinoleneBreast tumor, prostate carcinoma8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
α-Pinene / β-PineneCancerα-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
minorLinaloolLung cancerN/AA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Cancer200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)cancerN/ACannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CampheneCervical cancerN/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
CaryophylleneCancer7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide17.90% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
LinaloolBreast cancerN/ALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Colon cancer100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Prostate cancerN/AAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
TerpineolCancer3 or 6mMα-Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Hepatocellular carcinoma10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Liver cancer320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
TerpinoleneBrain tumour10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
AnticonvulsantmajorCBDV (Cannabidivarin)EpilepsyN/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
50–422mg/kgCannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism
400mg/kgCannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression
minorCBD (Cannabidiol)N/ACannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
CaryophylleneSeizures100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBDV (Cannabidivarin)N/ACannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin
CBN (Cannabinol)Tonic-clonic seizureN/AAnticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
IsopulegolSeizuresN/AEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
LinaloolEpelipsyN/AAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)0.25mg/kgΔ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
AntidepressantmajorCBC (Cannabichromene)Depression20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Camphor23.77% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
30mg/kgAntidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors
15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg
Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression
Immobility10–60nmolAntidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Limonene10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
LinaloolAnxiety and depressionN/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Depression50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
PhellandreneImmobility10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5mg/kgAntidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Posttraumatic stress disorder5mgPreliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
α-Pinene / β-PineneDepressionN/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
AntidiabeticCBD (Cannabidiol)Diabetes mellitus100mgPEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
D-LimoneneN/AProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)5mgEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
AntidyspnoeaCBD (Cannabidiol)Breathing Difficulties10mgCannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
AntidystonicDystonia200mgCannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Parkinson’s disease100-600mgOpen label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
AntiemeticmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticN/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
N/AAntiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
N/ARegulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids
15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
N/AAntiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis
N/AIntractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol)
18mg/m2An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
N/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
N/ADelta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation
10mg/m2Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study
5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
5mg,
10mg,
15mg
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications
N/AComparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
N/AA prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy
N/AThe antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
15mgAntiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
15mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo
5.0ng/mL,
5.0 to 10.0ng/mL,
10.0ng/mL
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation
minorCBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Nausea0.1μg/kgSuppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticN/ATHC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Nausea20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus
5mg/kgInteraction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)0.5μg/kg,
1.0μg/kg
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models
0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
5–0.1μg/kgEffect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats
0.5mg/kgCannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticN/AAntiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
Multiple sclerosis15mg/m2Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
NauseaN/AAmelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
8.4mg,
16.9mg
Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac
VomitingN/ATetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
AntiepilepticCBD (Cannabidiol)Epilepsy5 – 50mg/kgCannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex
200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
200-300mgChronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients
2-5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial
1 to 20mg/kgCBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience
N/ACannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases
AntifibrosisBorneolOral submucous fibrosis18.75 to 300μg/mlInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
AntifungalmajorFungal contaminationN/ABorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
CamphenePhytopathogenic fungiN/AChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
D-LimoneneFungal contaminationN/ARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Farnesene14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
NerolidolN/AEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
P-CymenePhytopathogenic fungiN/AAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
TerpinoleneMalassezia furfurN/AChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
minorD-LimoneneFungal contamination56% of mixure,
57.5% of mixure
Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Sabinene29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
moderateCymenePhytopathogenic fungi2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
MyrceneFungal contamination47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Ocimene25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
30.4% of mixureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
P-Cymene36.5% of mixtureAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Phellandrene1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
SabineneDermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal contamination26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
TerpinoleneBotrytis cinereaN/AAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
β-CaryophyllenePhytopathogenic fungi16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Antigastroesophageal refluxTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations20mgEffect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
AntiglaucomaminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Glaucoma20mg,
40mg
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)12mgMarijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
< 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount]Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
< 0.4% of mixture[/cr_amount]Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma
moderateCBG (Cannabigerol)N/AA Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.8% of mixtureEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
AntihyperactivityTourette’s Syndrome10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
N/AOral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report
10mgTreatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Tourette’s Syndrome10mgDelta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial
AntihyperanalgesiaLimoneneHyperalgesia10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Mechanical hyperalgesia10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
P-CymeneHyperalgesia25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
PhellandreneCold and mechanical hyperalgesia11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
AntihyperlipidemicCampheneHyperlipidemic30μg/grCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
AntiinflammatorymajorBorneolInflammationN/AAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
CBC (Cannabichromene)ColitisN/AThe cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Edema120mg/kg,
240mg/kg,
480mg/kg
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
N/AAnti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene
Inflammation-induced hypermotility10mg/kgInhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Microbiological contaminationN/ABiological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBD (Cannabidiol)AD-related neuroinflammation2.5 or 10mg/kgCannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Acute Pancreatitis0.5mg/kgAnti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Chronic Pain2.5–20mg/kgThe non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Diabetic ComplicationsN/ACannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption
N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
N/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseasesN/APathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Uveitis5mg/kgNeuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBG (Cannabigerol)Irritable bowel syndromeN/ABeneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Caryophyllene oxideInflammation12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
CymeneLipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryN/AProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
D-LimoneneTNBS-induced intestinal inflammation10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
EucalyptolAcute lung injury100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Airway hypersecretion200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
HumuleneEdemaN/AAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isopulegol22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Limonene25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and AntinociceptiveAntinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
LinaloolInflammationN/AAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Sabinene29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
α-BisabololEdemaN/AAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
α-Terpineol6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
β-CaryophylleneRheumatoid arthritis100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of β-Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
minorCBD (Cannabidiol)Neuroinflammatory diseasesN/AAnti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
SepsisN/AEffect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)Inflammation2μMCannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
CaryophylleneParkinson’s disease50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
EucalyptolMosquito larvae100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Crohn’s Disease115mgCannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
EdemaN/AAntipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
moderateBorneolOral mucositis1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
CBD (Cannabidiol)Acute lung injury20mg/kgCannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Inflammation5–40mg/kgOral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
Retinal InflammatoryN/AMediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic diseasesN/ACannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
CBG (Cannabigerol)NeuroinflammationN/AA Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
CBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid)InflammationN/AEvaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
CamphorArthritisN/AStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
EucalyptolColitis200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
EdemaN/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema, Pulmonary inflammationN/ATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
GeraniolAtherosclerosis100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
IsopulegolEdemaN/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
LinaloolN/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Neuropathic painN/A(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
MentholChronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitisN/AThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
MyrceneInflammation47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
P-CymeneHyperalgesia, Pleurisy25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Inflammation25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
PhellandrenePro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-650mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
PhytolEdema7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
SabineneLipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Intestinal inflammationN/AChronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Ischaemia-reperfusion injuryN/AΔ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
TerpineolEdemaN/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol-4-olLPS-stimulated human macrophagesN/ATerpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Δ-3-CareneEdemaN/AComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
N/APharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
N/APharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
α-BisabololInflammationN/AInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-Pinene / β-PineneN/Aα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
α-trans-BergamotenePleurisy7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
β-MyrceneOsteoarthritisN/AEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
AntileishmanialNerolidolLeishmania species100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
LeishmaniasisN/AAntileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
AntileukemicmajorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Friend leukemia200mg/kgAntineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
AntimalarialmoderateNerolidolMalaria1000mg/kgAntimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
α-Terpineol22.6% of mixtureComposition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
AntimicrobialmajorCampheneInflammation and pain-related processesN/AAntinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
D-LimoneneFood-related microorganismsN/AEffects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
FarneseneMicrobiological contamination51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
PhellandreneHypernociception50mg/kgAntinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
TerpineolMicrobiological contaminationN/AAntimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
α-Pinene / β-Pinene10.5 % of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
minorCedrol6.3% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Guaiol8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
MyrceneCertain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes1,
000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Microbiological contaminationN/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
N/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
N/AChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia
P-Cymene5.33% of mixtureAntimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals
TerpineolPeriodontopathic and cariogenic bacteriaN/AAntimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
α-BisabololHalatosisN/AThe antimicrobial activity of α-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
α-TerpineolAntimicrobial13.0% of mixtureAntimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
moderateBorneolMicrobiological contamination4.91% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
CBC (Cannabichromene)N/AAntibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
CampheneN/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Caryophyllene7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide60 to 80μg/mlCompositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
D-Limonene94% of mixtureOrange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
Guaiol8,
2% of mixure
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
5% of mixureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
Isoborneol14.66% of mixtureEssential Oil Composition, Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Activities of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) From São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais, Brazil
MyrceneN/AAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
N/AAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
3.21% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
P-Cymene32.6mL/LChemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
32.6mL/LChemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis
Terpinolene8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
α-Pinene / β-Pinene9.35% of mixture,
3.90% of mixture
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
50μg/mLBiological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers
50μg/mLBiological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers
β-Cedrene6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
AntinauseaminorTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Nausea10mg/kgEvaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
AntinociceptivemajorP-CymeneWrithe25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
minorLinaloolGlutamate induced painN/AEvidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisN/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
IsopulegolNociceptionN/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
LimoneneWrithe25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
LinaloolNociceptionN/AIntraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Writhe25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple sclerosisN/ACannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Pain4mg/kgLow dose combination of morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors
1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
1mg/kg,
5mg/kg
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats
AntiobesityTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)ObesityN/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.
3mg/kgSynthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice
N/AThe cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity
N/AEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.
α-Cedrene10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
AntioxidantmajorFarneseneOxidative stress51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Myrcene0.01μg/mlAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
N/AProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
N/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
NerolidolN/AAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
α-TerpineolN/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
α-trans-Bergamotene29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
β-Cedrene6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
minorFarneseneSuperficial scaldN/ASuperficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
MyrceneOxidative stressN/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/AUnderstanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
α-TerpineolN/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
moderateCBG (Cannabigerol)N/ACannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
Caryophyllene10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Parkinson’s disease50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene oxideOxidative stress17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CymeneN/AEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
Guaiol8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
MyrceneN/AAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
N/AAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
N/AThe Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
Nerolidol12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
P-CymeneN/AAntioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Sabinene29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
TerpineolN/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Terpinolene11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Antiproliferativemajorα-TerpineolChronic myelogenus leukemia12.66% of mixturePhytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
minorCBD (Cannabidiol)CancerN/APhysiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
α-TerpineolLeukemiaN/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Cancer1–10μMNon-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
TerpineolN/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
AntipsychoticminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Psychotic ExperiencesN/ACannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
moderateHyperlocomotion15–60mg/kgCannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Schizophrenia0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5mg,
5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
AntispasticityminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis12mgThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
SpasticityN/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)N/ASmoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis4spraysClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
N/AClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)10-15mg,
2.5-5mg
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients
N/ACannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up
1.54% of mixtureShort-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
N/ARandomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
N/ASafety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS
N/ACannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial
>7.5mgDelta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis
33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
33% of mixtureThe effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)
N/AThe effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
4spraysClinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity
2-10 inhalationsClinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis
Spasticity15–20mgThe treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
10 or 5mgTreatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
AntitremorMultiple sclerosisN/ATetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
AntitumormajorCBD (Cannabidiol)CancerN/AAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
N/AAntitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
N/AModulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer
CBG (Cannabigerol)N/ABoron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
β-CaryophylleneTumorN/Aβ-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
β-MyrceneLung adenocarcinoma9.29% of mixtureComposition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Cancer50mMCannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect
0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
0.5mgAntitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines
100mMCannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism
N/AChemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer
CBG (Cannabigerol)31.3lμ/mLSynthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CBN (Cannabinol)Tumor100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
HumuleneCancerN/AAntitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by α-humulene as possible mechanism of action
LinaloolN/ALinalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Glioblastoma multiformeN/AA pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
AnxiolyticmajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Anxiety400mgNeural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report
600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
600mgCannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients
N/AEffectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Limonene25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
LinaloolN/AEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
minorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)7.5mg,
15mg
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)N/AInvolvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
15nmol,
30nmol,
60nmol
The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors
32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
300mgInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life
Posttraumatic stress disorder32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)N/ACannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
32mgCannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans
CaryophylleneDepression and anxiety50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
LimoneneAnxiety3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
Linalool0.65% of mixure,
1.25% of mixure,
2.5% of mixure,
5.0% of mixure
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Acute psychosocial stress7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
AnxietyN/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Posttraumatic stress disorderN/ACannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
α-Pinene / β-PineneAnxietyN/AExpression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Appetite StimulantmajorCBD (Cannabidiol)AnorexiaN/AEffects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBN (Cannabinol)Low feeding behaviourN/ACannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Cancer2.5mgDelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)AnorexiaN/ACannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
Appetite LossN/ACannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Anorexia2.5mgA phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
N/AA double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa
HIV-infectedN/AA pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
Auto-immunityCBD (Cannabidiol)Immune System related diseases2.5 or 5mg/kgCannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
Bone Stimulant (Enhanced adipogenesis)OsteoporosisN/ARegulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Δ-3-CareneMetabolic bone disordersN/ALow Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Bronchodilating activityTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Asthma500mgEffects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
200mgBronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients
15mgAcute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
Breathing Difficulties20mgAcute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Cardiac ProctectionCBD (Cannabidiol)Cardiovascular ComplicationsN/ACannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
ChemopreventivemajorD-LimoneneSkin tumorigenesis50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
GeraniolBuccal pouch carcinogenesis250mg/kgChemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Contractile Activity (cardiac muscle)moderateEucalyptolMyocardial contractility related disorders0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
CytotoxicityminorSabineneHaCaT keratinocytes26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
moderateMacrophages and keratinocytes29% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
α-TerpineolBreast cancer5.4μg/mLThe effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Cervical cancer12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
GastroprotectivemajorLimoneneGastric ulcerN/AGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
N/AGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
29% of mixtureGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
minorα-BisabololN/A(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
moderateIsopulegolN/AGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
N/AGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms action
N/AGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
α-Pinene / β-PineneN/AGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
N/AGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
N/AGastroprotective effect of α-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
Healing propertyD-LimoneneChronic ulcers245mg/kgHealing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
ImmunosuppressiveCBG (Cannabigerol)Human immune diseasesN/AA Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Improve neurogenic symptomsCBD (Cannabidiol)Facial Emotion Recognition16mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)8mgAcute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Improves SleepCBD (Cannabidiol)Insomnia25mg,
6 to 12mg
Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Sleep Apnea20mgAround-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Improves behaviourADHD71ng/mLCannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
Improves recognition of emotion facialCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5–120mgA preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Insect repellentmajorGeraniolAedes albopictus0.250μg/cm3Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
MosquitoN/AEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
moderateMosquito, Sand Fly5% of mixtureIndoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Pediculus humanus humanusN/ARepellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
InsecticidemajorCamphorRed imported fire ant (RIFA) (Solenopsis invicta Buren)36.61% of mixtureFumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
minorPulegoneHouse fly, Musca domestica (L.)67.5% of mixtureMolecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
moderateCymeneSitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
PulegoneTribolium castaneum0.8-26.6% of mixtureChemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
LarvicidalEucalyptolAdult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)N/A1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Δ-3-CareneMosquitoes12.5% of mixtureδ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
NeuroprotectantmajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Brain InjuryN/ANeuroprotective Effects of the Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol in Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Piglets
300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
N/AThe neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic–ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB2 and adenosine receptors
300mgComparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
CaryophylleneCerebral Ischemic Injury10mg/kgProtective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
SeizuresN/ANeuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Alzheimer’s DiseaseN/AThe potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
minor4.5mgTetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)N/AThe marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
Huntington’s Disease10mg/kgControlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
Parkinson’s disease300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
300mgEffects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
75mg,
300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial
Spinal injury20mg/kgCannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
CBG (Cannabigerol)Huntington’s DiseaseN/ANeuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice
N/AVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
N/AVCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease
CBN (Cannabinol)ALS5mg/kgCannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
D-LimoneneAnxiety and pain15.21% of mixtureNeuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)ADHDN/AOral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ALSN/AThe CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Dementia3mgEffects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
Neurological disordersN/ACannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Oxidative stressN/AReactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Traumatic Brain InjuryN/AEffect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)Neurodegeneration10μMEffects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
RelaxantLimoneneSleep deprivation100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Myrcene100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
SedativeLinaloolAutonomic nerve activity,mood statesN/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
High heart rate and upset moodN/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Skin RepairmajorD-LimoneneDermatitis, Skin lesionN/ASkin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Stimulates neural effectsmoderateTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Obesity10mgNeural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
Urinary ProtectantCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosis2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)2.5mgAn open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
VasorelaxantBorneolTension of the blood vessel wallsN/AInvestigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

EffectMagnitudeCannabinoid/ TerpeneCondition treatedStudy
AnalgesicmoderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Multiple sclerosisRandomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
CaryophyllenePainβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxidePainβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Multiple sclerosisRandomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
AnticancermajorLimoneneCancerCancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
moderateCBC (Cannabichromene)CancerThe endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication
CBD (Cannabidiol)CancerCannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
CaryophylleneCancerβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideCancerβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
AntidepressantminorCBC (Cannabichromene)DepressionReview Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
AntiemeticmoderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)EmeticEffects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials
EmeticAntiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
AntiepilepticCBC (Cannabichromene)EpilepsyMarijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
AntiglaucomaCBN (Cannabinol)GlaucomaCannabinoids and glaucoma
AntihypertensionCBD (Cannabidiol)HypertensionIs the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
AntiinflammatorymajorMyrceneInflammationCannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Crohn’s diseaseCannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
moderateα-BisabololInflammationA Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
AntiinsomniaBorneolInsomniaHerbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
AntioxidantCaryophyllene oxideOxidative stressβ‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
AntiprokineticCBD (Cannabidiol)Intestinal prokineticEdible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
AntiproliferativeTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)CancerCannabinoids and Cancer
AntipsoriaticCBD (Cannabidiol)PsoriasisEdible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
AntipsychosisSchizophreniaA Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Antispasmodicminorβ-MyrceneSpasmEssential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
moderateTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Spasm and painPrescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
AntispasticityminorCBD (Cannabidiol)SpasticityWhole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
AntitumormajorGeraniolTumorThe antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
moderateβ-MyrceneCancerAntitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Bone StimulantTHCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)Bone diseasesRole of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
CerebroprotectiveminorCBD (Cannabidiol)Chronic DiseasesTherapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
EucalyptolCoughSurvey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
NeuroprotectivemajorCBD (Cannabidiol)Neurodegenerative DisordersCannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
minorTHC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)MigraineCannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
moderateCBN (Cannabinol)ALSCan cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)BipolarCannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Stimulate AppetiteAnorexiaThe cancer cachexia syndrome
Stimulate Bone GrowthminorCBN (Cannabinol)Bone diseasesRole of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
OsteoporosisRole of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)OsteoporosisRole of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
moderateCBD (Cannabidiol)Bone diseasesEdible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)Bone diseasesRole of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling

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