The Cannabis Review® | Terpenes

Terpenes are molecules partially responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. They are naturally present in a number of fruits, spices, herbs and other vegetation, and research shows they have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review® | Terpenes is a collection of scientific studies that identify conditions treated by terpenes, by what mechanism, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of the terpene used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the condition.

majorBiological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderateBiological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minorBiological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of terpenes treating specific conditions. Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

TerpenesCondition treatedEffectAmount usedStudyGrade
Borneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)CancerAnticancer (major)N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
N/ANatural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage
N/ANatural borneol enhances bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through up-regulation of intracellular ROS in HepG2 cells
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (major)N/ABorneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
InflammationAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnalgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)4.91% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymusvulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Oral mucositisAntiinflammatory (moderate)1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosisAntifibrosis (moderate)18.75 to 300 μg/mLInfluence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
PainAnalgesics (major)N/AA clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Tension of the blood vessel wallsVasorelaxant (moderate)N/AInvestigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
ThrombosisAnthrombotic (moderate)N/AThe Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Camphene (Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)Cervical cancerAnticancer (moderate)N/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
HyperlipidemicAntihyperlipidemic (major)30μg/mLCamphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Inflammation and pain-related processesAntinociceptive (major)N/AAntinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)N/AThe in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Phytopathogenic bacteriaAntibacterial (major)5000 MIC,
mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (major)N/AChemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Camphor (Also found in camphor laurel woods (Cinnamomum camphora))ArthritisAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AStudy on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)23.77% of mixtureAn Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
PainAnalgesic (moderate)N/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
N/ACamphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism
200μL/L,
400μL/L,
500μL/L,
550μL/L,
600 μL/L
The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830)
Red imported fire antInsecticide (major)36.61% of mixtureFumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
CaryophylleneBacterial contaminationAntibacterial (minor)10-35% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Antibacterial (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
27.0% of mixtureCorresponding Author: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L
35.3% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Oil of Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble var. caesia (Meisner) Gamble
undefined (moderate)19.08% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
CancerAnticancer (major)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Anticancer (moderate)7.8–500lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Depression and anxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice
50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Caryophyllene or β-Caryophyllene (Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary, basil, thai basil & black pepper)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
CancerAnticancer (major)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Cerebral Ischemic InjuryNeuroprotective (major)10mg/kgProtective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Depression and anxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)7.8–500 lg/mLEffects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)10.54% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Parkinson’s diseaseAntibacterial (major)N/AUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Antiinflammatory (minor)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Antioxidant (moderate)50mg/kgβ-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Periodontal diseaseAntibacterial (major)N/AUse of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (moderate)16.98% of mixtureChemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Rheumatoid arthritisAntiinflammatory (major)100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
SeizuresAnticonvulsant (minor)100mg/kgAnticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Neuroprotective (major)N/ANeuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
TumorAntitumor (major)N/Aβ-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Caryophyllene oxide (Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)CancerAnticancer (moderate)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
InflammationAntiinflammatory (major)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)60 to 80μg/mlCompositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)17.9% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
PainAnalgesic (moderate)12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Anesthetic (moderate)56.90% of mixtureAnesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Cedrol (Also found in conifer oils (Cupressus and Juniperus))Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (minor)6.3% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injuryAntiinflammatory (major)N/AProtective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adultsInsecticidal (moderate)2% of mixtureAntifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
D-Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit))Anxiety and painNeuroprotective (moderate)15.21% of mixtureNeuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
Chronic ulcersHealing property (moderate)245mg/kgHealing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Dermatitis,Skin lesionSkin Repair (major)N/ASkin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Diabetes mellitusAntidiabetic (moderate)N/AProtective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Food-related microorganismsAntimicrobial (major)N/AEffects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (major)N/ARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
N/ARapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Antifungal (minor)56% and 57.5% of mixtureAntifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)94% of mixtureOrange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp
Skin tumorigenesisAntitumor (major)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammationAntiinflammatory (major)10mg/kgOral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Eucalyptol (Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)Acute lung injury100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Adult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito)Larvicida (moderate)N/A1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Airway hypersecretionAntiinflammatory (major)200mgAnti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
ColitisAntiinflammatory (moderate)200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
EdemaN/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema,Pulmonary inflammationN/ATransient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Mosquito larvaeLarvicidal (minor)100mg/LBioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Myocardial contractility related disordersContractile Activity (moderate)0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
PainAnalgesic (moderate)N/AAntiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Farnesene (Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (major)14.6–16.4% of mixtureChemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)51.5% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Superficial scaldAntioxidant (minor)N/ASuperficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (moderate)N/AScreening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geraniol (Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type))Aedes albopictusInsect repellent (major)0.250μg/cm3Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
AsthmaAntiasthma (major)100 or 200mg/kgEffect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
AtherosclerosisAntiinflammatory (moderate)100mg/kgGeraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Buccal pouch carcinogenesisAnticancer (major)250mg/kgChemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesispathway
MosquitoInsect repellant (major)N/AEfficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Mosquito,Sand FlyInsect repellant (moderate)5% of mixtureIndoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Pediculus humanus humanusN/ARepellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Prostate cancerAnticancer (major)N/AGeraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Geranyl Acetate (Also found in citronella oil, lemongrass oil, sassafras oil, rose oil)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (major)7.6% of mixtureChemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Guaiol (Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (minor)8,
2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
5% of mixtureVolatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece – Antimicrobial activity
8.2% of mixtureChemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)8.2% of mixtureChemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
StressAnesthetic (minor)N/AAnesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Humulene (Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (major)14.21% of mixtureIn vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
CancerAnticancer (major)32μg/mLPotentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Antitumor (moderate)N/AAntitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isoborneol (Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera, kaempferia galanga)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)14.66% of mixtureGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol (Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal))EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
22.02% of mixtureIn Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Antiinflammatory (moderate)N/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (moderate)N/AGastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
NociceptionAnotinociceptive (moderate)N/AAnotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
SeizuresAnticonvulsant (major)N/AEffects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Limonene (Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit))AlgesicAnalgesic (moderate)N/AInvolvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)0.5% of mixture,
1.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like activity and GC–MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Anxiolytic (moderate)3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L
Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (major)N/AGastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
HyperalgesiaAntihyperalgesia (moderate)10mg/kgLimonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Mechanical hyperalgesiaAntihyperanalgesia (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Sleep deprivationRelaxant (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
WritheAntinociceptive (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Linalool (Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)AnxietyAnxiolytic (major)N/AEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
N/AEvaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
Anxiolytic (moderate)0.65% of mixture,
1.25% of mixture,
2.5% of mixture,
5.0% of mixture
Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
Anxiety and depressionAntidepressant (moderate)N/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood statesSedative (moderate)N/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Breast cancerAnticancer (moderate)N/ALinalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
CancerAntitumor (moderate)N/ALinalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Colon cancerAnticancer (moderate)100μg/kg,
200μg/kg
Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg
Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
EdemaAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
EpilepsyAnticonvulsant (moderate)N/AAnticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Glutamate induced painAntinociceptive (minor)N/AEvidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
High heart rate and upset moodSedative (moderate)N/ASedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
InflammationAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Lung cancerAnticancer (minor)N/AA comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Neuropathic painAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/A(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
NociceptionAntinociceptive (moderate)N/AIntraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
PainAnalgesic (moderate)N/Aα-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
N/AOdour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice
Prostate cancerAnticancer (moderate)N/AAnticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
ReflexesAnesthetic (moderate)0.01 – 10μg/mLLocal Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
WritheAntinociception (moderate)25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg
(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Menthol (Also found in peppermint, eucalyptus & pennyroyal)Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitisAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AThe anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Myrcene (Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil)Bacterial ContaminationAntibacterial (major)N/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymesAntimutagenic (minor)1,
000μg/mL
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
HyperalgesiaAnalgesic (minor)N/AMyrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)47.7–84.6% of mixtureEssential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)N/AAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
0.01μg/mlProtective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells
N/ANew insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Antioxidant (minor)N/AAntioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
Antioxidant (moderate)N/AAntioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver
N/AThe Antioxidant Properties of Thyme (Thymus zygis L.) Essential Oil: an Inhibitor of Lipid Peroxidation and a Free Radical Scavenger
Sleep deprivationRelaxant (moderate)100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Nerolidol (Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)Fungal contaminationAntifungal (major)N/AEvaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Leishmania speciesAntileishmanial (moderate)100μMAntileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
LeishmaniasisN/AAntileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
MalariaAntimalarial (moderate)1000mg/kgAntimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)N/AAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
N/AAntioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
Antioxidant (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test
12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice
Ocimene (Also found in basil, parsley & mint)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (major)23.9% of mixtureChemical composition and antibacterial activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq essential oil
0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
0.03–40.49% of mixtureChemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo
Antibacterial (moderate)N/AAntibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (moderate)30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
30.4% of mixtureAntifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
25.11% of mixtureChemical composition of essential oil from leaves of litsea cubeba and its antifungal activities
P-Cymene (Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (moderate)0.25–1.25mMCarvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (moderate)36.5% of mixtureAntifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
1000ppmStudies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Hyperalgesia,PleurisyAntihyperalgesic (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Antiinflammatory (moderate)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Inflammation25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (major)32.6mg/LAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
Oxidative stressAntifungal (moderate)N/AAntioxidant activity of plant extracts on the inhibition of citral off-odor formation
N/AAntimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)
N/AEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
Antioxidant (moderate)N/AEvaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
Phytopathogenic fungiAntifungal (major)N/AAntifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
WritheAntinociceptive (major)25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Phellandrene (Also found in eucalyptus)Cold and mechanical hyperalgesiaAntihyperanalgesia (moderate)11mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (moderate)1.7mg/L,
1.8mg/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
HypernociceptionAntinociceptive (major)50mg/kgAntinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
ImmobilityAntidepressant (moderate)10mg/kgAntihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6Antiinflammatory (moderate)50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Phytol (Also found in green tea)Edema7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Pulegone (Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy)House fly,Musca domestica (L.)Insecticidal (minor)69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
67.5% of mixtureMolecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone
69.70% of mixtureInsecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)
Tribolium castaneumInsecticidal (moderate)0.8-26.6% of mixtureChemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
Sabinene (Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformansAntifungal (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal contaminationAntifungal (minor)29.0% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antifungal (moderate)31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
31.1% of mixtureIn Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower
26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
HaCaT keratinocytesCytotoxicity (minor)26.2% of mixtureEssential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
InflammationAntiinflammatory (minor)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophagesAntiinflammatory (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Macrophages and keratinocytesCytotoxicity (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)29.% of mixtureAntifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
TerpineolCancerAnticancer (moderate)3mM,
6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Antiproliferative (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
EdemaAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Hepatocellular carcinomaAnticancer (moderate)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg
4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Liver cancer320μg/mlγ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (major)N/AAntimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteriaAntimicrobial (minor)N/AAntimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
WritheAnalgesic (moderate)N/AA Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol-4-o (Also found in cajuput oil, pine oil & petitgrain oil)LPS-stimulated human macrophagesAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/ATerpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Terpinolene (Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)Botrytis cinereaAntifungal (moderate)N/AAntifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain tumourAnticancer (moderate)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast tumor, prostate carcinomaAnticancer (major)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Malassezia furfurAntifungal (major)N/AChemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)8.4% of mixtureEssential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
75mg/L
Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L
Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Valencene (Also found in valencia oranges)Ingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household productsAddetive Ingredient (moderate)N/ACitrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene
Δ-3-Carene (Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)EdemaAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/APharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema and subchronic inflammationN/AComparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquitoLarvicidal (moderate)N/AFrom Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Metabolic bone disordersBone stimulant (moderate)N/ALow Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
MosquitoesLarvicidal (moderate)12.5% of the mixtureFrom Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
α Pinene / β Pinene (Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)AnxietyAnxiolytic (moderate)N/AExpression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Bacterial contaminationAntibacterial (major)19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
CancerAnticancer (major)19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
DepressionAntidepressant (moderate)N/ALinalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (moderate)N/AGastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/Aα-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (major)10.5% of mixtureAntimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
α-Bisabolol (Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)N/AAnti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Gastric ulcerGastroprotective (minor)N/A(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
HalatosisAntimicrobial (minor)N/AThe antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
InflammationAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AInhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil)ObesityAntiobesity (moderate)10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
α-Terpineol (Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)Breast cancerCytotoxicity (moderate)5.4μg/mLThe effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Cervical cancer12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Chronic myelogenus leukemiaAntiproliferative (major)12.66% of mixturePhytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
EdemaAntiinflammatory (major)6.2% of mixtureChemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
LeukemiaAntiproliferative (minor)N/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
MalariaAntimalarial (moderate)22.6% of mixtureComposition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (minor)13.0% of mixtureAntimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
N/AInfluence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit
Antioxidant (minor)N/AAntioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
α-trans-Bergamotene (Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil)Buccal bacteriaAntibacterial (moderate)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)29.9% of mixtureChemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
PleurisyAntiinflammatory (moderate)7% of mixturePharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
β-Cedrene (Also found in cedar oil)Microbiological contaminationAntimicrobial (moderate)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (major)6.1% of mixtureChemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
β-Myrcene (Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass)Lung adenocarcinomaAntitumor (major)9.29% of mixtureComposition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
OsteoarthritisAntiinflammatory (moderate)N/AEvaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

TerpeneCondition treatedEffectStudy
Beta-MyrceneCancerAntitumor (moderate)Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
SpasmAntispasm (minor)Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
BorneolInsomniaAnti-insomnia (moderate)Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
CaryophylleneCancerAnticancer (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
PainAnalgesic (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxideCancerAnticancer (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Oxidative stressAntioxidant (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
PainAnalgesic (moderate)β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
EucalyptolCoughCough suppresant (minor)Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
GeraniolTumorAntitumor (major)The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
LimoneneCancerAnticancer (major)Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
MyrceneInflammationAntiinflammatory (major)Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
α-BisabololAntiinflammatory (moderate)A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils

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